SALK, JONAS

SALK, JONAS (1914–1995), U.S. virologist. Salk was born in New York City, graduating in medicine from New York University Medical School (1939). Pursuing his commitment as a student to killed antiviral vaccination, he worked on influenza virus vaccines at the University of Michigan with Thomas Francis before moving to the University of Pittsburgh in 1947, where he became director of viral research. Exploiting Enders' 1949 discovery of methods for growing poliomyelitis virus in tissue culture, Salk developed an inactivated anti-polio virus vaccine given by intramuscular injection. Clinical trials of the vaccine in the U.S. and Canada showed a dramatic fall of over 90% in the incidence of the polio virus-induced disease, paralytic poliomyelitis, by 1955. Initial problems of infectious virus persistence in one commercial vaccine preparation were overcome, and vaccination with Salk vaccine was adopted routinely in the U.S. and other countries. Salk refused to profit financially from his vaccine. The efficacy of a killed virus vaccine led to the development of similar vaccines against other viruses. albert sabin 's alternative oral live-virus antipolio vaccine, with the prospect of conferring lifelong immunity, supplanted the Salk vaccine in the U.S. and other countries, at least temporarily. The different approaches to antipolio vaccination in 1963 led to intense personal and general controversy. Salk founded the Institute for Biological Sciences named for him in La Jolla, California, where he continued his research, including attempts to develop an anti-HIV virus. His honors included the Lasker award for clinical medical research (1956), the U.S. Order of Merit, and a Congressional Gold Medal. (Michael Denman (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Salk, Jonas — ▪ 1996       U.S. physician and medical researcher (b. Oct. 28, 1914, New York, N.Y. d. June 23, 1995, La Jolla, Calif.), was the creator of the first effective vaccine against poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis). Salk first conducted research on …   Universalium

  • Salk, Jonas — (1914 95)    American scientist. He was a research professor at the University of Pittsburgh. He developed the anti polio vaccine which is used worldwide. He served as an adviser on virus diseases to the World Health Organization, and founded the …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Salk, Jonas Edward — Médico y microbiólogo estadounidense, nacido en Nueva York en 1914. Consiguió, en 1953, cultivar los tres tipos de virus de la poliomielitis más comunes, inactivarlos con formaldehido y lograr la primera vacuna contra la poliomielitis. Medical… …   Diccionario médico

  • Salk,Jonas Edward — Salk (sôlk), Jonas Edward. 1914 1995. American microbiologist who developed the first effective killed virus vaccine against polio (1954). * * * …   Universalium

  • Salk , Jonas Edward — (1914–1995) American microbiologist Salk was born in New York City, the son of a garment worker. He was educated at the City College of New York and at New York University Medical School, where he obtained his MD in 1939. In 1942 he went to the… …   Scientists

  • Salk, Jonas Edward — ▪ American physician and medical researcher born Oct. 28, 1914, New York, New York, U.S. died June 23, 1995, La Jolla, California   American physician and medical researcher who developed the first safe and effective vaccine for polio.       Salk …   Universalium

  • Salk, Jonas (Edward) — born Oct. 28, 1914, New York, N.Y., U.S. died June 23, 1995, La Jolla, Calif. U.S. physician and researcher. He received his M.D. from New York University. Working with other scientists to classify poliovirus, he confirmed earlier studies that… …   Universalium

  • Salk, Jonas (Edward) — (28 oct. 1914, Nueva York, N.Y., EE.UU.–23 jun. 1995, La Jolla, Cal.). Médico e investigador estadounidense. Se graduó de médico en la Universidad de Nueva York. Trabajando con otros científicos en la clasificación del poliovirus, confirmó los… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Salk, Jonas Edward — (b. 1914)    Discoverer of anti polio vaccine. As a New York research professor at the University of Pittsburgh, Salk evolved the anti polio vaccine which bears his name and which is now in worldwide use. From 1961 to 1963, he was an adviser on… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Jonas Salk — Salk en la Universidad de Pittsburgh en 1955. Nacimiento 28 de octubre de 1914 …   Wikipedia Español

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